|There Is No Peace: 60 Years Since End of World War II|
The article was originally published under the headline, World War II: Three Wars in One, and the subheading, Do the political patterns of World War II suggest lessons in the struggle for peace today? The record offers a way of testing some current issues in dispute.
It is copyright © New International. Reprinted by permission. Subheadings are by the Militant. Footnotes appear at the end of the article.
BY DANIEL ROBERTS
Among many people friendly to the Soviet Union the belief exists that the only practical hope for peace lies in Washington and Moscow reaching an agreement to give up war as an instrument of policy. As spokesmen of the Communist Party often put it, all that is needed to end the cold war and the danger of nuclear conflict is to restore the alliance that existed between America and the Soviet Union during World War II.
They blame [President Harry S.] Truman for breaking off Roosevelts alleged policy of friendship for the USSR. They blame [Secretary of State John Foster] Dulles for worsening the anti-Soviet trend.
Their program for rectifying this situation boils downs to a simple prescription: work within the Democratic Party. By helping Democrats to win office, they maintain, it is possible to influence the party in the direction of a peoples coalitionsuch as existed in America under FDR during World War IIthus strengthening the forces for peace.
Against this policy of class collaboration, the Socialist Workers Party advocates following socialist principles in the struggle for peace. These begin with opposition to capitalist candidates, no matter what demagogic labels they may wear. The SWP favors doing everything possible to popularize socialism, including running socialist candidates for office. The SWP opposes company unionism in the political struggle as well as the wage struggle and supports the trends in both fields toward independence and militancy. The SWP seeks, as the alternative to war, a socialist America.
These views are attacked by CP leaders as sectarian, divisive, utopian and worse.
Struggle for peace, road to socialism
Who is right? The question is not unimportant, for it involves the struggle for peace and the road to socialism. The fate of tens of millions, in fact the fate of all mankind, hinges on coming up with a correct answer.
The CPs proposals hark back to an earlier appraisal of the problems of war, peace, defense of the Soviet Union and the struggle against reaction. This was their analysis of the character of World War II and their estimate of the Allied camp as a democratic, peoples coalition against fascism.
The present policy of the CP is an extension of that position, just as the SWPs policy today is an extension of the position it took during World War II. It can therefore prove useful to review the differences of that time, for it is possible to check them against what actually happened and thus see who turned out to be right. Obviously this is highly relevant to the CPs insistence upon a return to the political patterns of World War II.
Even more important than who was right, however, study of the actual course of history in the light of prognosis can offer us better understanding of the class forces involved in World War II, how that colossal conflict affected them, and what direction they are moving in today. On that basis it should prove considerably easier to work out realistic political policies for the period before us.
Were they imperialists?
A basic premise offered by Communist leaders under Stalins influence was that the powers allied to the Soviet Union in World War II became historically progressive through their pact with the workers state. From September 1939 to June 1941 this proposition benefited the Axis powers. British, French and American war aims were denounced as imperialisticwhich they certainly were; German war aims were presented as in the interests of national self-defensewhich they certainly were not.1
When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union and Stalin hastily concluded an alliance with Britain and the United States, signs were at once reversed.2 The Axis countries alone now pursued reactionary imperialist objectives, whereas the American-British- Russian alliance pursued democratic, national-liberationistin short, historically progressivegoals. This still remains the official CP version of the character of the second world war.
In order to justify such switches, Communist Party leaders had to discard completely Lenins conclusions about the nature of imperialism. They had to revive, in effect, the notorious position propounded by the Social Democratic theoretician Karl Kautsky during World War I; namely, that imperialism is but one of alternative policies that the major capitalist powers are free to follow, that it is not organic to the stage of big business rule. In World War I, German, French, British, Italian, Russian and American socialists utilized Kautskys arguments to justify support for their respective governments….
Highest, last stage of capitalism
To refute Kautsky, Lenin showed by painstaking economic and historical analysis that imperialism represents a special stage in the development of capitalism; i.e., imperialism is synonymous with Western capitalism since the turn of the twentieth century; that it is, in fact, the last or highest stage of capitalism itself.3
According to Lenin, one of the features of imperialism is the rule of financial oligarchies (such as Americas sixty wealthiest families) in the major capitalist countries. The foreign policy pursued by any of the major capitalist powers cannot be anything but imperialistic; that is, designed to exploit other countries. Wars between major capitalist powers are inevitably conflicts involving redivision of the world. They have no progressive content and can acquire none. Imperialism threatens civilization with total destruction. Its wars spread untold misery. Consequently, said Lenin, Imperialism is the eve of the proletarian social revolution. This has been confirmed since 1917 on a world-wide scale.
At bottom of the dispute over the war question between the Communist Party and the Socialist Workers Partybetween Stalinism and Trotskyisminvolved the validity of Lenins characterization of imperialism. It is still involved in the dispute over how best to fight for peace. The Socialist Workers Party has adhered to the Leninist criteria; the Communist Party has abandoned them.4
It should be emphasized that whether or not workers ought to defend the Soviet Union from imperialist attack is not at issue. From the beginning, the Socialist Workers Party has supported unconditional defense of the workers state, regardless of its leadership. Likewise not at issue is the right of the Soviet government to make military alliances with one group of imperialist powers against a different groupor to switch alliances if need be. What is in dispute is whether or not socialists should offer political support to the imperialist ally of the Soviet Union and whether or not they should help expose that allys true war aims and oppose them.
In proposing that socialists give no political support to any of the major capitalist powers during the war, the Socialist Workers Party held to Leninism, which taught in the first years of the Soviet Unions existence that while the workers state might be compelled to sign a temporary agreement with one or another imperialist power, this must not be permitted to alter socialist opposition to the imperialist government.
Big business rules democracies
Some substantial facts in World War II spoke for the correctness of this position. In Britain, France and the United States, big business ruled as unquestionably as in Germany, Italy and Japan…. [I]n the U.S. the Smith Gag Act was passed in 1940 and applied shortly thereafter against eighteen leading members of the Socialist Workers Party and of the Minneapolis Truck drivers Local 544-CIO [for leading labor opposition to entering the imperialist war].
In their colonies and semi-colonies, British, French and American imperialism ruled with totalitarian brutality. The U.S., for example, governed through military dictators in most of Latin America….
Both the Axis and the British-French-American powers sought either to retain or to acquire colonies, markets, sources of raw material and areas of cheap labor where capital could be invested at a high rate of profit. This substantiated once again what Lenin had noted about the tendency to imperialist redivision of the world among the great powers.
Axis, Allies hate October Revolution
As the vast slaughter unfolded, the SWP called attention to important additional facts. Each of the warring capitalist camps displayed in turn its mortal enmity to the land of the October 1917 Revolution. Thus in 1940, when the Soviet Union attacked Finland, the French, British and American imperialists prepared to intervene militarily in defense of their outpost….
Foreshadowing American postwar policy of containing communism within a network of military bases, Roosevelts Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, declared that the U.S. must police the world for the next hundred years. In anticipation of the type of rule they wished to impose in Europe, the Allies maintained a stable of kings, queens and capitalist politicians of every variety heading up governments-in-exile. At the end of the war, the Allies foisted a number of them on European peoples against their will (for instance, in Greece)….
In Japan, [General Douglas] MacArthur carefully protected the divine Mikado from popular resentment….
But didnt the U.S. alliance with the Soviet Union mark a departure from imperialist policy? Didnt it reflect democratic forces in American government, which came to recognize the menace of Nazism and to see the need for united action to defeat it?
Imperialist statesmen are quite capable of giving revolutionary forces a temporary assist if they calculate that it will serve their own ends. The Kaiser provided Lenin with a sealed train, let it be recalled; yet it never occurred to Lenin to regard this as evidence of a democratic ingredient in the Hohenzollern dynasty. When Lenins government came to power, too, imperialist powers concluded temporary agreements with the workers state for the sake of advantages against imperialist rivals. (These, of course, also brought advantages to the Soviet Union.) The most famous of them in the early days of the Soviet republic was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which German imperialism decided would secure the release of armies from the Russian front for use in the western trenches. That was not taken as a reflection of democratic forces in the German General Staff. (Even Hitler signed a pact with Stalin that meant conceding considerable territory to the Soviet Union.)
In World War II, pursuing its goal of ultimate world domination, American imperialism had to decide whether it should seek to destroy the Soviet Union before or after reducing its rivals to the status of vassals. (Hitler was compelled to make a similar choice at the beginning of the war.)
American imperialism elected to defeat its imperialist rivals first, taking a chance on carving up the Soviet Union later. Once the Axis had been defeated, American imperialism lost no time in regrouping its capitalist foes and allies alike in a world crusade against communism. The cold war thus did not represent a reversion to imperialism but simply the succeeding phase of a policy aiming at exploitation of the entire globe. What other rational explanation can be offered for the rapidity with which Americas rulers shifted in 1945 from alliance with the Soviet Union to construction of a military machine equipped with sufficient nuclear poisons to overkill all mankind sixty or seventy times?
World War II essentially imperialist
World War II was thus essentially imperialist in character. But interimperialist rivalries, while predominant, were far from exclusive in the sanguinary conflict. In this it differed from World War I except for the closing phase of that slaughter. Interlaced with the utterly reactionary fight among the imperialist wolves were two other wars of quite different character.
These two wars were the Soviet Unions defense against Germany and Chinas struggle for national liberation from Japan. That both the Soviet Union and China were allied with a reactionary imperialist bloc did not lessen the progressive character of their struggles just as it did not lessen the reactionary character of their allies.
In addition, a number of other essentially independent working-class and independent colonial-freedom movements took shape or developed at heightened speeds during the second world war.
To take a correct position on these struggles, socialists had to separate them out and consider them on their own merits; that is, in relation to their class content and their effect on the world-wide movement for socialism….
Defense of the Soviet Union
[The Socialist Workers Party and world movement it was part of] kept in sight the basic economic and social institutions that were established by the October Revolutionstate monopoly of foreign trade, the planned economy, the anti-capitalist structure of government, the socialist outlook of the masses. No matter how deeply these had degenerated under Stalins regime, [they] held that the Soviet institutions still added up to a workers state. From this it followed that the socialist opposition to Stalinism could in no way accede to imperialist intervention in Soviet affairs. It was the job of the Soviet working people and no one elseto get rid of Stalinist tyranny and restore proletarian democracy. Those in socialist opposition to Stalinism, in fact, in order to advance the worldwide struggle for socialism, were duty-bound to serve as the best defenders of the Soviet Union.
In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, [Bolshevik leader Leon] Trotsky wrote: Those who cannot defend old positions will never conquer new ones
. The defense of the USSR coincides in principle with the preparation of the world proletarian revolution.
Heroic resistance of toilers in USSR
Events have fully confirmed the view that the possibility of new revolutionary conquests was linked to the defense of old positions. The heroic resistance of the Soviet workers and peasants saved the USSR after Stalins policies had brought the workers state to the verge of catastrophic defeat.5 With the first Soviet victories, a resistance movement that had already begun to take shape in many parts of Europe against the Nazis and the collaborationist bourgeoisie gained revolutionary scope. Partisan forces began operating throughout Eastern Europe, reinforcing Soviet guerrillas behind the German lines.
In Yugoslavia, partisans, spearheaded by proletarian brigades, pinned down considerable German forces even before the Nazi invasion of the USSR. The Yugoslavs, under Titos leadership, rendered valiant aid in the defense of the Soviet Union. But they too needed the further inspiration of Soviet victories to forge ahead to their own victory and the establishment of a workers state.
In Greece, another mass revolutionary movementthe ELAS partisansin 1943 gained control of the entire country except for Athens, then lost it when the Greek Communist party leadership obeyed Stalins orders to yield power to the British in accordance with the secret deal he had made at Yalta and Tehran with the imperialist statesmen Churchill and Roosevelt.
Impact of Soviet victories
The impact of the Soviet victories decisively shaped the political evolution of the French resistance movement. The working class gained ascendancy within it, and the Communist Party acquired effective leadership. In Italy, too, the Soviet victories spurred the revolutionary movement that toppled Mussolini in August 1943 and that continued to unfold against both the German occupation in the north and the Allied occupation in the south.
In Germany, the accumulation of military catastrophes broke the apathy that had settled upon the working class following Hitlers victory in 1933. The beginnings of a revolutionary movement appeared as the Nazi regime collapsed.
The Soviet victories were an element in the resurgence of socialist sentiment among the British workers. In 1945 they booted Churchill out of office and put the Labour Party in power….
Stalin and the Communist Party leaders who made a cult of his personality did not agree with Trotsky that The defense of the USSR coincides in principle with the preparation of the world proletarian revolution.
As a caste enjoying special privileges in the Soviet Union, the Stalinist bureaucracy feared that victorious socialist revolutions in Western Europe would inspire the Soviet workers to oust them from power. One of the reflections of this fear was the Stalinist theory that socialist aims had to be discarded in World War II, or indefinitely postponed, since the conflictagain according to Stalinist theorywas essentially a struggle between democracy and fascism. Therefore, to believe this leadership, the struggle for socialism could only play into the hands of the fascists. This outlook received its most glaring expression in Stalins chauvinistic manner of waging the war. All appeals to socialist sentiments were dropped. Russian patriotic traditions replaced them. Hatred for the German people was a dominant theme in Soviet propaganda, a policy that did much to reinforce the Nazi hold on the German masses.
Stalins secret deals with imperialists
Other equally reactionary consequences followed. Stalins secret deals with Roosevelt and Churchill called for retaining capitalism in power throughout Europe, with the Soviet Union allotted the buffer zone, which it had taken anyway in Eastern Europe for purposes of military defense.
Even in Bulgaria and Rumania, the USSRs immediate neighbors, decrees were issued as the Red Army marched across the border that the existing social structure was not to be altered, although the working people were organizing strikes, dividing up landlords estates and getting rid of the fascist officials.
Only after American imperialismwith the help of the Communist partieshad stabilized capitalist rule in Western Europe to some degree, had launched the cold war, was testing atomic bombs in the Pacific and stockpiling nuclear weapons, did the Kremlin reluctantly take the defensive measure of abolishing capitalist rule in Eastern Europe by bureaucratic-military means….
Defense of China
The third war, intermingled with the imperialist conflict between the Allies and the Axis, was Chinas struggle against Japan….
Japanese capitalism had reached the imperialist stage. China was a semi-colony that had yet to achieve the stage of an integrated nation. Lenin long ago pointed out that the working class in the imperialist centers had everything to gain from making common cause with the colonial bourgeoisie in such struggles while retaining political independence due to the limitations inherent in a bourgeois nationalist leadership. Applying this concept, the Trotskyists remained in political opposition to the Chiang [Kai-shek] dictatorship but subordinated this opposition to the defense of China.
How well the Trotskyist estimate corresponded to the objective course of this war can be seen in retrospect. The Chinese people sought from 1931 to resist the encroachments of Japanese imperialism, and, by shaking off the Japanese yoke, to win national liberation from all imperialist powers, including the U.S. Chiangs incredibly corrupt regime repeatedly sought compromise with Japanese imperialism but the costly concessions did not halt the Japanese advance. It was only the revolutionary resistance of the Chinese people that prevented Japan from consolidating its conquests and overrunning all of China.
The [Chiang Kai-shek regimes] do-nothing record, its outrageous exactions from the peasants, its looting and plundering, and its increasingly abject dependence on American imperialism lost it any measure of acquiescence it might have enjoyed among the masses during the war. With Chinas victory, the people set out to get rid of this hated government.
In accordance with the Kremlins characterization of World War II, the Chinese followers of Stalin did not steer toward socialist aims. They did everything possible to bolster Chiang Kai-shek despite repeated brush-offs from the dictator. China in their opinion was not ripe for an economic and social overturn. Chinese capitalism still had a historic mission to accomplish and they were willing to do what they could to maintain it.
When the Chinese people took the road of economic and social revolution, however, the Communist Party found itself propelled into leadership. As in the case of Tito in Yugoslavia, Mao disregarded Stalins directives. (At the outset of the civil war, Stalin recognized Chiang Kai-sheks regime as the legitimate Chinese government and urged Mao Tse-tung to make a deal with the dictator.) Mao also disregarded his own theories. The alternative was to be flattened by the revolutionary steamroller.
Thus Chinacoveted prize of both Japanese and American imperialism continuing the struggle begun against Japan, underwent a profound social and economic revolution, escaped all would-be imperialist overlords and emerged as an independent power, a result Roosevelt had not anticipated when he included China in his wartime alliance.6 …
Indias anticolonial revolt
In August 1942 when mass strikes and demonstrations swept India, and the Congress Party of the Indian capitalists called for a civil-disobedience campaign to win independence from England, the Trotskyists supported the struggle. The Indian Communist Party leadership, while paying lip service to Indias objective of independence, opposed the actual struggle. In common with Churchill, the U.S. State Department and the British Labour Party brass, the CP declared that the Indian peoples rising interfered with the Allied war effort and thus offered objective aid to Japanese imperialism.
This prognosis turned out to be somewhat inaccurate. The August 1942 strikes did not help the Japanese at all, but they did aid the cause of Indian freedom and the revolutionary struggle to liquidate imperialism in general. By 1945 the British were compelled to grant India her independence or face a revolutionary movement far more powerful and determined than even the August 1942 uprising.
But the Communist Party was so discredited by its wartime position in India that it lost its opportunity to become a leading force. Still worse, it brought discredit on communism itself. The result was that the Congress Party filled the vacuum and won domination of Indian politics. The Indian bourgeoisie was able to arrest the logical course of the revolutionary ferment, preserve the capitalist structure, and survive as a ruling class. India is paying for this today with abysmal poverty, the constant threat of famine, and economic stagnation.
Were the miners right?
Besides the three wars already considered, it will prove instructive to bring into sharper focus still another conflictthe class struggle in America during World War II.
The capitalists did not forget their class interests during the war. On the contrary, as always, they utilized the bloodbath to advance their interests, beginning with those that could be added up in bank accounts in the form of profits. Through Roosevelt in the White House and through the Democratic-Republican coalition in Congress they sought to contain the labor movement under threat of massive retaliation.
The Socialist Workers Party called attention to this elementary fact again and again, and, in the fighting socialist tradition of Eugene V. Debs, advocated that the working people should defend their interests despite the war. This was the positive content of socialist opposition to the imperialist conflict. It was that simple in essence.
The American workers were resolutely against fascism anywhere, any time, at home, in Italy, in Germany, in Spain. They tended to support the war in the mistaken belief that Roosevelt was telling the truth about fighting for democracy and for four freedoms.
But the fraud of Roosevelts equality of sacrifice program, which froze wages in the face of inflation while profit-taking reached astronomical heights; revelations of how the giant corporations honored their lucrative cartel obligations with German firms while German and American workers were killing one another; the evident intentions of the employers, operating from the vantage point of government boards, to rob workers of their union gainsall these prompted the American working people to look to their own interests.
The miners led the resistance. In an epic series of coal mine strikes in 1943, the United Mine Workers stood up to the combined pressure of the employers, the Roosevelt administration, the courts, the big business press, lynch-minded professional patriots and the AFL and CIO bureaucracy.7…
Organized labor in America owes its existence today to the success of the wartime mine workers strikes. Emboldened by what the miners had gained through militant struggle, rank-and-file unionists everywhere pressed for similar concessions from the employers and their government. The postwar union-busting schemes of the monopolies were drowned in the great strike wave of 1946 when almost two million workers walked the picket lines at one time.
GIs demand: Get us home!
The class struggles touched off by the mine strikes paid off in another direction as well. They inspired the Get Us Home demonstrations of American troops in the European and Pacific theaters following V-J Day. Big business had different plans for the servicemen. It wanted the GIs to police the world and ready themselves to march against the Soviet Union. The draftees, led by union men in the ranks, frustrated these plans. The brass hats had to accede to the servicemens demands. The War Department was forced to curtail the size of its armed forces abroad and to replace the veterans with unseasoned drafted youths. That slowed down American imperialisms timetable for World War III, a fortunate occurrence from which we benefit to this day.
CPUSA outvied professional patriots
In contrast to the revolutionary socialist course of supporting such militant struggles, the Communist Party leadership joined in making a cult of Roosevelt and of outvying the professional patriots in broadcasting the Churchill-Roosevelt-Stalin propaganda about a war for democracy and four freedoms. The Communist Party became notorious in the labor movement for its win-the-war zeal.
They backed the Nazi-like relocation of Japanese-Americans in concentration camps because of their color and ancestry; they told the Negro people that under no circumstances must the struggle for equality be pressed during wartime; they frothed at the mouth over the coal miners daring to go out on strike; they shouted hooray for the conviction of the SWP leaders under the Smith Act and urged even stiffer sentences; they took the lead in promoting the no-strike pledge and proposed to extend it after the war; they cheered for the bombs that Truman dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; they fought every manifestation of sentiment for building a labor party. In brief, under the slogan of fighting a war for democracy, they opposed the democratic right of the working people to defend their standard of living, their union organizations, and their political interests in wartime.
What this cost the Communist Party in political influence is now apparent to all. When the postwar witch-hunt began, the unfortunate Communist Party victims found themselves without a friend in the labor movement. The wartime record of Stalinism on civil liberties, civil rights, labor solidarity, defense of the working-class standard of living, and defense of the trade unions against employer attack contributed mightily to the catastrophic collapse of the party.8
How to defeat fascism
Even at this late date, in face of this eloquent record, one still hears the argument, But wasnt it necessary to place the defeat of fascism in the front rank of socialist objectives?
The answer is, Yes, it was necessary. The problem was how to defeat fascism.
The Socialist Workers Party held that the only effective course is through development of struggles of the working class and its allies. The beginning point is militant defense of democratic conquests that are suffering erosion at the hands of a capitalist class inclined in its old age to resort to fascism. Some of the key issues involve civil liberties, civil rights, the equality of minorities, democracy in the armed forces, freedom of the trade unions from government control, participation of labor in politics in defense of its own interests and through its own political party.
The key is to strengthen the labor movement and this includes defending it from bureaucratic abuses and violations of the democratic process in the unions themselves. The construction of a powerful labor movement able to represent the political interests of the poorest levels of the population, including farmers and small businessmen, prepares the way for socialismthe only enduring guarantee against reaction, fascist or otherwise.
The Communist Party took the opposite courseto utilize the anti-fascist sentiments of the working class to instill trust in liberal capitalists in general and the Democratic Party in particular….
To recapitulate: It is not true that sectarian considerations motivated the Socialist Workers position in World War II. Opposition to the imperialist conflict derived from general revolutionary socialist principles tested for more than a century. They were applied, moreover, with careful consideration to the complex intertwining of three wars involving highly contradictory forces. Experience verified the correctness of supporting the Soviet Union, the colonial countries and the struggles of the American workers in wartime; and of opposing with utmost resoluteness the imperialist powers that ventured to plunge mankind into this fearful carnage.
The positions taken in World War II retain their importance today for the insight they offer to current attitudes in the struggle for peace and as a guide for correct ways of opposing the cold war. Militant workers have much to gain from studying them as they consider how to avert the nuclear conflict which American imperialism began preparing as a direct consequence of its victory in World War II.
1. For instance, the Sunday Worker, Feb. 25, 1940, stated: The Soviet Unions pacts with Germany rescued the German people from the worst of counter-revolutionary wars and ditched the predatory plans of the Allied warmakers against both the Soviet and the German peoples. The Comintern press spoke of the Anglo-French alliance as the imperialist bloc against the German people. A main slogan of the American Communist party was, The Yanks Are Not Coming! Roosevelt was denounced as an imperialist warmonger, a characterization closer to the truth than his later designation as a champion of peace, democracy and American-Soviet friendship.
2. In August 1939, Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with the Nazi government of Germany, which freed Hitlers hands for the invasion of Western Europe.
3. V. I. Lenin. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, written January-July,1916,with prefaces to new editions, April 20, 1917, and July 6, 1920.
4. The viewpoint of the Socialist Workers Party is well expressed in a resolution adopted by the Tenth National Convention in October 1942. Another key document is the manifesto of the Fourth International, Imperialist War and the Proletarian Revolution. For a defense of the position under fire, Socialism on Trial, the official record of James P. Cannons testimony in the first Smith Act trial, is recommended. [It can be obtained from Pathfinder Press.]
5. In his speech at the secret session of the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist party, Khrushchev referred to some of Stalins crimes. His list included debilitation of the command of the armed forces in the blood purges of the 1930s and Stalins refusal to believe reports that the Nazis were planning to attack. In 1941 the Trotskyist movement pointed to these as among the major reasons for the initial costly defeats suffered by the Soviet Union.
6. For a vivid account of how Chinas struggle, thrown on its own resources, developed stage by stage to the profoundest overturn since the October 1917 Revolution in Czarist Russia, the reader is referred to Jack Beldens China Shakes the World.
7. See the excellent account by, Art Preis, How the Miners Won, in the spring 1959 issue of International Socialist Review.
8. In Atlanta Penitentiary as a victim of the Smith Act, John Gates, a top leader of the Communist Party, read how Debs, who had been sentenced to the same prison as a witchhunt victim in World War I, had been able to run an effective campaign for President from behind bars and had been eventually freed by a huge mass movement in his behalf. In painful contrast to this, Gates observed, there was an almost complete absence of popular concern over our imprisonment. (The Story of an American Communist, Thomas Nelson & Sons, New York.) Gates failed to note that Debs followed a policy of socialist opposition to World War I.
Previous article in the series:
American concentration camps
How Washington imprisoned Japanese-Americans during World War II
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