When Malcolm left the Nation [of Islam], he didnt initially have much to say about the rights or social position of women. But in the Autobiography [of Malcolm X]the draft of which had been completed, with the help of journalist Alex Haley, only shortly before the assassinationMalcolm tells a story that sheds light on the speed and degree of his later evolution on this question. (In reading the Autobiography, we should always keep two things in mind. First, that the interviews were begun while Malcolm was still in the Nation, with Elijah Muhammads approval. And second, that Malcolm was denied the opportunity to review and edit the final draft, or bring it in line with his views at that time. According to Haley, the assassination coincided with the days he and Malcolm had tentatively set aside for that review.)
Toward the end of the Autobiography, Malcolm is describing his visit to Beirut, Lebanon, on the last day of April 1964. Going out for a walk, he says,
immediately my attention was struck by the mannerisms and attire of the Lebanese women. In the Holy Land [Saudi Arabia] there had been the very modest, very feminine Arabian womenand there was this sudden contrast of the half-French, half-Arab Lebanese women who projected in their dress and street manners more liberty, more boldness. I saw clearly the obvious European influence upon the Lebanese culture. It showed me how any countrys moral strength, or its moral weakness, is quickly measurable by the street attire and attitude of its womenespecially its young women. Wherever the spiritual values have been submerged, if not destroyed, by an emphasis upon the material things, invariably, the women reflect it. Witness the women, both young and old, in Americawhere scarcely any moral values are left.
So thats how Malcolm still approached the question of womens social position a month or so after his break with the Nation. The emphasis remained on religious standards of modesty and sexual morality.
At roughly this same time, Malcolm was still an unequivocal opponent of what he called intermarriage. In the Autobiography, once again, Malcolm writes: Im right with the Southern white man who believes that you cant have so-called integration, at least not for long, without intermarriage increasing. And what good is this for anyone? Lets again face reality. In a world as color-hostile as this, man or woman, black or white, what do they want with a mate of the other race?
By the end of Malcolms second trip to Africa and the Middle East in 1964, between early July and late November, however, his views had undergone a striking changeone that paralleled the evolution of how he thought and acted on other social and political questions. At a news conference during a stopover in Paris following that trip, Malcolm said that one of the things he had noticed during his travels was that
in every country you go to, usually the degree of progress can never be separated from the woman. If youre in a country thats progressive, the woman is progressive. If youre in a country that reflects the consciousness toward the importance of education, its because the woman is aware of the importance of education.
But in every backward country youll find the women are backward, and in every country where education is not stressed its because the women dont have education. So one of the things I became thoroughly convinced of in my recent travels is the importance of giving freedom to the women, giving her education, and giving her the incentive to get out there and put the same spirit and understanding in her children. And I am frankly proud of the contributions that our women have made in the struggle for freedom and Im one person whos for giving them all the leeway possible because theyve made a greater contribution than many of us men.
This is a very advanced level of political understanding: that you can measure the degree of progress and development of a society by the place of women in its social, economic, and political life. Unlike Malcolms remarks just a few months earlier about women in Beirut, where female modesty and religious morality had been his starting point, now Malcolm was using political criteria. He overcame simple prejudicewhich is what Malcolms earlier views reflected, whether expressed by him or by anyone elseand began replacing them with facts about the social position of women. He began talking about what women can and do accomplish to advance human progress, to advance revolutionary change, if barriers erected against them begin to be torn down.
Malcolm also changed his mind on interracial marriage. Appearing on a television talk show in Toronto, in mid-January 1965, Malcolm was asked by the host, Pierre Berton, whether he still held his earlier views on this question. Malcolm replied: I believe in recognizing every human being as a human beingneither white, black, brown, or red; and when you are dealing with humanity as a family theres no question of integration or intermarriage. Its just one human being marrying another human being, or one human being living around and with another human being.
What needs to be attacked, Malcolm told Berton, is the racist society that produces attitudes hostile toward integration and toward intermarriage and toward these other strides toward oneness of human beings, not the reaction that develops among the people who are the victims of that negative society.
In assessing the evolution of Malcolms attitude toward womens rightsincluding the place he had come to recognize women would occupy in coming revolutionary struggles in the United States and worldwidewe should also note the shattering impact on Malcolm of his discovery that Elijah Muhammad was sexually abusing young female members of the Nation of Islam. According to Malcolm, this was the single fact, more than any particular political conflict per se, that marked a turning point in his relationship with the Nation. It deeply shook Malcolms confidence in the religious, political, and moral integrity of Elijah Muhammad and of the Nation of Islam itself .
Finally, Malcolm deepened his understanding of the importance of combating the oppression of women as he watched them help lead the fight for Black rights in this country. When Fannie Lou Hamer came to New York in December 1964 to win support for the freedom struggle in Mississippi, Malcolm spoke alongside her at a rally in Harlem and gave her a platform that night at the meeting of the OAAU [Organization of Afro-American Unity]. Malcolm also admired and worked with Gloria Richardson, who had refused to call off demonstrations in Cambridge, Maryland, in face of white-supremacist thugs and the National Guardas well as public rebukes by conservative Black leadersand who publicly solidarized with Malcolms call for the right of self-defense against racist terror.
I mentioned earlier Malcolms insistence that the aim of the movement he was working to build was to awaken Blacks to their humanity, to their own worth. During the final months of his life, Malcolm also deepened his understanding that the fight to liberate half of humanity from their oppression, and to assert in action their political worth, sharply increased the potential forces of revolution in this country and around the world.
Rightists target interracial couple in Nova Scotia
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