Books of the Month

Trotsky: ‘Jewish question is tied to the emancipation of humanity’

December 11, 2023
Jewish survivors surrounded by Nazi stormtroopers after crushing of heroic monthlong Warsaw ghetto uprising by Polish Jews in 1943. Over 6 million Jews were killed by Hitler regime in the Holocaust. Taking on Jew-hatred is crucial task for the working class today.
United States Holocaust Memorial MuseumJewish survivors surrounded by Nazi stormtroopers after crushing of heroic monthlong Warsaw ghetto uprising by Polish Jews in 1943. Over 6 million Jews were killed by Hitler regime in the Holocaust. Taking on Jew-hatred is crucial task for the working class today.

Since Hamas’ Oct. 7 pogrom against Jews in Israel ignited a surge in Jew-hating attacks across the world, Pathfinder is featuring the pamphlet  On the Jewish Question  by Leon Trotsky as one of its Books of the Month for December. Trotsky, a leader of the October 1917 Russian Revolution under V.I. Lenin, fought to defend Lenin’s proletarian internationalist course against a bureaucratic counterrevolution headed by Stalin. Trotsky was writing before the Holocaust, the postwar betrayals of revolution in Europe by Stalin, and the decision by Washington and London to keep their borders closed to Jews, which led to the founding of Israel. The excerpts are from Trotsky’s 1934 interview, “On the ‘Jewish Problem’”; “Imperialism and anti-Semitism” in 1940; and a 1937 “Interview with Jewish correspondents in Mexico.” Copyright © 1970 by Pathfinder Press. Reprinted by permission.


Question: The official Communist Party characterized, without question, the Jewish-Arab events in 1929 in Palestine as the revolutionary uprising of the oppressed Arabian masses. What is your opinion of this policy?

Answer: Unfortunately, I am not thoroughly familiar with the facts to venture a definite opinion. I am now studying the question. Then it will be easier to see in what proportion and in what degree there were present those elements such as national liberationists (anti-imperialists) and reactionary Mohammedans and anti-Semitic pogromists. On the surface, it seems to me that all these elements were there.

Question: What is your attitude about Palestine as a possible Jewish “homeland” and about a land for the Jews generally? Don’t you believe that the anti-Semitism of German fascism compels a different approach to the Jewish question on the part of Communists?

Answer: Both the fascist state in Germany, as well as the Arabian-Jewish struggle, bring forth new and very clear verifications of the principle that the Jewish question cannot be solved within the framework of capitalism. I do not know whether Jewry will be built up again as a nation. However, there can be no doubt that the material conditions for the existence of Jewry as an independent nation could be brought about only by the proletarian revolution. There is no such thing on our planet as the idea that one has more claim to land than another.

The establishment of a territorial base for Jewry in Palestine or any other country is conceivable only with the migrations of large human masses. Only a triumphant socialism can take upon itself such tasks. It can be foreseen that it may take place either on the basis of a mutual understanding, or with the aid of a kind of international proletarian tribunal which should take up this question and solve it.

The blind alley in which German Jewry finds itself as well as the blind alley in which Zionism finds itself is inseparably bound up with the blind alley of world capitalism, as a whole. Only when the Jewish workers clearly see this interrelationship will they be forewarned against pessimism and despair.


The world of decaying capitalism is overcrowded. The question of admitting a hundred extra refugees becomes a major problem for such a world power as the United States. In an era of aviation, telegraph, telephone, radio, and television, travel from country to country is paralyzed by passports and visas. The period of the wasting away of foreign trade and the decline of domestic trade is at the same time the period of the monstrous intensification of chauvinism and especially of anti-Semitism. In the epoch of its rise, capitalism took the Jewish people out of the ghetto and utilized them as an instrument in its commercial expansion. Today decaying capitalist society is striving to squeeze the Jewish people from all its pores; seventeen million individuals out of the two billion populating the globe, that is, less than one percent, can no longer find a place on our planet! Amid the vast expanses of land and the marvels of technology … the bourgeoisie has managed to convert our planet into a foul prison. …

The struggle for “living room” is nothing but camouflage for imperialist expansion, that is, the policy of annexation and plunder. The racial justification for this expansion is a lie; National Socialism changes its racial sympathies and antipathies in accordance with strategic considerations. A somewhat more stable element in fascist propaganda is, perhaps, anti-Semitism. … Not for nothing did Frederick Engels label anti-Semitism the “socialism of idiots”! The sole feature of fascism which is not counterfeit is its will to power, subjugation, and plunder. Fascism is a chemically pure distillation of the culture of imperialism.


During my youth I rather leaned toward the prognosis that the Jews of different countries would be assimilated and that the Jewish question would thus disappear in a quasi-automatic fashion. The historical development of the last quarter of a century has not confirmed this perspective. Decaying capitalism has everywhere swung over to an exacerbated nationalism, one part of which is anti-Semitism. The Jewish question has loomed largest in the most highly developed capitalist country of Europe, in Germany.

On the other hand the Jews of different countries have created their press and developed the Yiddish language as an instrument adapted to modern culture. One must therefore reckon with the fact that the Jewish nation will maintain itself for an entire epoch to come. Now the nation cannot normally exist without a common territory. Zionism springs from this very idea. But the facts of every passing day demonstrate to us that Zionism is incapable of resolving the Jewish question. The conflict between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine acquires a more and more tragic and more and more menacing character. I do not at all believe that the Jewish question can be resolved within the framework of rotting capitalism and under the control of British imperialism. …

The Jewish question, I repeat, is indissolubly bound up with the complete emancipation of humanity. Everything else that is done in this domain can only be a palliative and often even a two-edged blade, as the example of Palestine shows.